Social consequences of premature mortality in the country for its citizens is the growing number of widows, widowers and orphans, psychological disadvantage in single-parent families, the feminization of poverty, and for the government - reducing the number of young people of draft age and the reduction of the mobilization potential of Russia, reducing the population size and density that the most dangerous in the border areas of the country, especially in the Far East and South in terms of the shortage of available land development and the pressure of surplus population and territorial claims by neighboring countries. Growth in the number of deaths from external, mostly preventable causes, indicates the general weakening of the health services of the country. With the lack of funding for health related difficulties in Russia to provide high-quality preventive care, effective treatment of diseases. The role of the health care system is still quite significant, especially with regard to labor potential losses caused by premature mortality. Materials and social hygiene studies indicate that adverse social conditions violate the laws of biological age, slowing growth and development of children and speeding up the aging process in adults, which in turn affects the health outcomes - mortality and life expectancy. Therefore, in the coming years need to solve the following priority health problems: - Reducing premature mortality from all causes of preventable through its parts; - Improvement of reproductive health, especially among adolescents; - Improving the health of infants and reduce infant mortality; - Reduction in the incidence of socially significant and socially conditioned diseases (tuberculosis, alcoholism, drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and other). International experience shows that with political will and adequate resources, these problems are solvable in principle today, they can be solved in Russia. This is all the more important that in the current environment can reduce mortality resist depopulation trend to a greater extent than the increase in the birth rate. Findings So, it is necessary to conclude that in the process of reproduction of the population mortality, along with fertility plays a major role. There are various gauges the intensity of mortality, but the most adequate response summarizing the current level of mortality, life expectancy is calculated on the basis of mortality tables. The process of extinction depends on the generation of a large number of mortality factors (economic, climatic, ethnic, political, cultural, genetic, etc.). Historical typology of death itself is based on the concept of epidemiological transition, which shows a general historical trend of increasing the social control mortality. Life expectancy varies widely by individual countries and continents differ significantly in both men and women, among certain social groups. It is an essential and integral indicator recommended by the World Health Organization as a criterion for the health and living standards of the population of a region. Control questions and tasks I task. (Fill in the missing word). Exogenous factors of mortality associated with the action ............. environment, endogenous factors are determined by the development of the human body ........... II mission. (Choose the correct answer.) Which country has the highest life expectancy? 1) Sweden 2) Canada 3) Australia 4) Japan 5) France III assignment. (Choose the correct answer.) How many years in a Russian women live longer than men? 1) 8 years 2) At 10 years 3) More than 12 years IV task. (Choose the correct answer.) Infant mortality rate is calculated as the ratio of the number of deaths under one year: 1) per 1000 population 2) to the 1000 total births 3) per 1,000 live births References EM Andreev Social determination of mortality, population policy and forecasts of life expectancy / Methodology population projection. Moscow, 1988. EM Andreev The death rate in Russia / Contemporary demography. M., 1995. Poor MS Demographic factors of health. Moscow, 1984. Anatoly Vishnevsky Reproduction of the population and society, Moscow, 1982. Gavrilov LA Can a person live longer? Moscow, 1985. Population: Collegiate Dictionary. Moscow, 1994. The population of Russia: 2000. The eighth annual demographic report of the Center for Demography and Human Ecology, Institute of Economic Forecasting. Moscow, 2001. Inequality and mortality in Russia. Moscow, 2000. Omran AR The epidemiological aspect of the theory of Vital / Population Problems. Moscow, 1977. Urlanis B.Ts. The evolution of life. Moscow, 1978. © Veselkova IN 2002 Chapter VIII Marriage and Family 1. Union 2. The history of the family structure. Functions of the family 3. Socio-economic status of the family in Russia 4. Family policy 1. Union Foundation of the family is marriage between a woman and a man. Marriage - historically caused, authorized and regulated by society form of relationship between a man and a woman, defining their rights and obligations with respect to each other and to the children. In modern law marriage - a free, voluntary, equal union of men and women, based on mutual love and respect, concluded for a family and generating mutual rights and obligations of spouses and having to birth and parenting. Registration of marriage - the act of state recognition of marriage. This is not a formal act, and the action that has legal significance for both spouses and their children. Stipulated by the law of all countries, not only the marriage itself, but also the conditions of the marriage. The first and most important condition - the mutual consent of the parties to the marriage, the second - the attainment of marriageable age. At what age can marry, defines the law. Familiarity with the laws of some countries, the minimum age for marriage, reveals a rather "amusing" diversity in defining its boundaries. In general, they range from 9 to 18 for women and from 14 to 22 years for men, besides the law allows some exceptions, and the local customs make these exceptions, more or less frequent. In European countries, there is either the same for both sexes, the age of marriage, or marriage age for men is slightly higher. For example, in Hungary, the age of consent is defined in 18 for men and 16 for women in Poland - 18 years for men and 16 for women. In England may marry persons who have reached the age of 16, in France - women in 15 years, and men at 18. In Asia, for example, in Japan may have to marry a man of 18 years, women - at 16, and in China - men at 22 years (this is the highest age for marriage among other countries), women - 20 years , in India - a man of 21 years, women - 18 years. In the Americas, for example, in the U.S. the minimum age varies by state. For men, it is defined in 14-18 years, and for women - 13-17 years in Canada (Quebec), the minimum age for marriage for girls 12-16 years old, to the young man - 14-16, in Argentina, Colombia and Peru, the minimum age for marriage for men is defined in 16 years for women - 14, in Venezuela, Paraguay, Chile and Ecuador, the minimum age for marriage at 14 years for men and for women - 12. In Africa - in Egypt and Algeria, the minimum age for marriage for men is defined in 18 years for women - 16, while Nigeria and Kenya, the minimum age of marriage for girls is defined in 9 years for boys - 16-18. In Australia, the minimum age of marriage for men - 18 years for women - 16. In most countries, for the marriage of young, are of marriageable age, the consent of the parents. Information about the family structure of the peoples inhabiting the territory of Russia prior to the adoption of Christianity, are scarce and fragmentary. Annals say that when the fields are developed monogamous family, the other Slavic tribes - relatives, Vyatichi, Krivichy polygamy is still preserved. Family relations are regulated in this period, customary law. Various sources indicate several ways of marriage. Among the most ancient - the kidnapping of the bride groom, without her consent, however, gradually takes away the bride begin to precede an agreement with her. With the adoption of Christianity in Russia begins to act Nomocanon - a collection of Byzantine family law, consisting of the secular canons and decrees of the Byzantine emperors. Later Nomocanon was amended by Resolution of the Russian princes and was named Komchey book. The church wedding, introduced in the XI century. While practiced only among the upper classes, the general population to contract a marriage according to traditional rites, considered a relic of paganism. According to the statutes Komchey book wedding was preceded by a betrothal - a conspiracy, in which the bride and groom's parents arrange the marriage and agreed on a dowry. The act of betrothal issue a special "sgovornoy" record. Betrothal tied the groom and the bride is almost the same as marriage, breach of loyalty to the groom was seen as adultery. There was a minimum age for marriage - 15 years to 13 years and the groom to the bride. The priests refused to marry the elderly. Banned marriages with close relatives. Mutual consent to marriage by church rules are always needed. Dissolution of marriage is practically not provided. Reforms of Peter I started a new period in the development of family law. Has become crucial given to voluntary marriage. Peter I tried to enter the educational qualification for the nobles who marry, demanding at the wedding certificate of proficiency in arithmetic and geometry. In 1722, it was forbidden to marry by decree "fools who neither in science, nor in the service do not work." In 1744, a decree of the Synod were banned marriages for people over 80 years old. "Marriage is ordained of God - says the decree - for the continuation of the human race, which has from 80 to hope for a very desperate." In 1830, the increased age of marriage to 18 for men and 16 years for women. For marriage requires the consent of the parents, regardless of the age of the bride and groom. Since 1917 held the first reform of family law. Exposure decrees "On civil marriage, children, and conduct books Vital", "divorce", etc. In 1926 he received one for both sexes the age of consent, which persists to this day - 18 years. The diversity in the definition of the age of consent suggests that the basis of its legislative recognition is not any single pattern, and more specific, practical motives. Age at marriage is primarily of interest from the point of view of reproduction, since it is one of the factors that is associated with fertility (probably why legislation was guided by local customs and traditions, adjusting them in one direction or another). Age at marriage - one of the main characteristics of marriage in the country. The statistical analysis of the widely used traditional indicators average age of marriage. It is calculated based on the age distribution of the intending spouses in a given year. Of particular value in the demographic and sociological analysis of marriage and related phenomena is a combination of the age of brides and grooms. Age of men and women in marriage varies widely. There are marriages in which the husband is much older than his wife, and vice versa, but more often than men on average for 2-4 years older than his wife. Information on the age of marriage can be obtained with the population censuses and surveys, as well as current data on demographic events. Sociologists point out the following reasons for marriage: love, common interests, short-term passion, sympathy, a sense of loneliness, a sense of compassion, the likelihood of imminent birth of a child, the desire to improve their financial situation, the desire to legitimize an intimate relationship, pressure from parents, the desire to have a family, the desire to have children etc. Many laws in marriage provided the marriage contract (marriage contract). Marriage Contract - A written agreement of the bride and groom on the settlement of their mutual rights and responsibilities in the management and disposition of property. Marriages - the most important demographic factor fertility, family formation and changes in family structure. Among the meters are the most common process of marriage marriage rate, indicative of the intensity of marriage in the entire population (crude marriage), and in separate groups marriageable population (specific marriage rates). Reducing the marriage rate (per 1000 population) was significant as early as the 80s., Ac 90-HGG. speed "fall" further increased (see Table. 15). Table 15 Crude marriage rate in the Russian Federation (% O) Years 1959 1970 1979 1989 1990 1992 1999 2000 Marriages 12.5 10.1 10.6 9.4 8.9 7.1 6.2 6.2 Marriages compared to 1959 decreased by half and is now stabilized at a low level. Reduction of marriage not only due to decrease in the intensity of marriages, but also by changes in the age composition of the population. In addition, the marriage rate of the population it affects migration, which can cause imbalance gender, and socio-economic situation in the country - people are forced to put off marriage because of the low standard of living and are often replaced by other forms of cohabitation.